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Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world's 13th-largest country by area; with approximately 126,014,024 inhabitants, it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish-speakers. Mexico is organized as a federal republic comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital. Other major urban areas include Monterrey, Guadalajara, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.
Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BCE and is identified as one of the world's six cradles of civilization. In particular, the Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations; including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha. Last were the Aztecs, who dominated the region in the century before European contact. In 1521, the Spanish Empire and its indigenous allies conquered the Aztec Empire from its capital Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City), establishing the colony of New Spain. Over the next three centuries, Spain and the Catholic Church played an important role expanding the territory, enforcing Christianity and spreading the Spanish language throughout. With the discovery of rich deposits of silver in Zacatecas and Guanajuato, New Spain soon became one of the most important mining centers worldwide. Wealth coming from Asia and the New World contributed to Spain's status as a major world power for the next centuries, and brought about a price revolution in Western Europe. The colonial order came to an end in the early nineteenth century with the War of Independence against Spain. (Full article...)
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Aries is the ninth studio album by Mexican recording artist Luis Miguel. It was released by WEA Latina on 22 June 1993. After attaining commercial success in 1991 with his previous album, Romance, Luis Miguel decided to return to a style similar to his earlier work, featuring pop ballads and dance numbers with R&B influences. The record was produced by Luis Miguel, who was assisted by Kiko Cibrian, Rudy Pérez, David Foster, and Juan Luis Guerra.
Three singles were released to promote the album. The first two singles, "Ayer" and "Hasta Que Me Olvides," topped the US Billboard Hot Latin Songs
chart and the third, "Suave," peaked at number nine. Two other songs were released as promotional singles, "Hasta el Fin" and "Tú y Yo"; both peaked at number four on the Hot Latin Songs chart. To further promote the record, Luis Miguel launched the 1993 Aries Tour
to some Latin American countries and the United States. (Full article...
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The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA ; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) was an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States that created a trilateral trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994, and superseded the 1988 Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement between the United States and Canada. The NAFTA trade bloc formed one of the largest trade blocs in the world by gross domestic product.
The impetus for a North American free trade zone began with U.S. president Ronald Reagan
, who made the idea part of his 1980 presidential campaign
. After the signing of the Canada–United States Free Trade Agreement in 1988, the administrations of U.S. president George H. W. Bush
, Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari
, and Canadian prime minister Brian Mulroney
agreed to negotiate what became NAFTA. Each submitted the agreement for ratification in their respective capitals in December 1992, but NAFTA faced significant opposition in both the United States and Canada. All three countries ratified NAFTA in 1993 after the addition of two side agreements, the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC) and the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). (Full article...
image credit: Alexander Van Driessche
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Villano III in July 2018.
Arturo Díaz Mendoza (March 23, 1952 – August 21, 2018) was a Mexican professional wrestler who performed under the ring name Villano III (in Spanish Villano Tercero). Díaz was a second-generation wrestler, son of luchador Ray Mendoza and the father of professional wrestlers Villano III Jr. and El Hijo del Villano III himself. All five of the Díaz brothers used the Villano name; José de Jesús (Villano I), José Alfredo (Villano II), Tomas (Villano IV) and Raymundo (Villano V). Of the five Villanos, Arturo was considered the most successful in terms of championship and Lucha de Apuesta (bet match) wins as well as the most talented luchador in the family. He retired from wrestling in 2015 due to health issues stemming from wrestling. A few days after his death, he was inducted in the AAA Hall of Fame.
During his 35 year career, Arturo Díaz was one of the featured performers for the Universal Wrestling Association
, and for all the all major Mexican wrestling promotions such as Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre
as well as numerous notable smaller Mexican promotions like International Wrestling Revolution Group
. Díaz was an enmascarado
, or masked wrestler, up until 2000 where he lost to Atlantis
and had to unmask as a result. The match against Atlantis was later voted "Match of the Year
" in the Wrestling Observer Newsletter year-end awards
. In contrast one of his last matches ever, at Triplemanía XXIII
was voted the "worst match of the year
" in 2015. (Full article...
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In the news
- 1 October 2022 –
- Three people are killed and two others are injured after a helicopter crashes in Frontera, Tabasco, Mexico. (AP)
- 30 September 2022 –
- Mexican president Andrés Manuel López Obrador confirms that the Mexican Secretariat of National Defense was hacked and that leaked data included information about the president's health issues and other national security issues. (Proceso)
- 23 September 2022 – Mexican drug war
- Gunmen kill ten people in a mass shooting at a pool hall in Tarimoro, Guanajuato, Mexico. (CBS News)
- 22 September 2022 –
- Two people are killed by a magnitude 6.9 earthquake in Mexico City. The earthquake was an aftershock of the magnitude 7.6 earthquake that occurred three days ago in Michoacán, Mexico. (The Guardian)
- 19 September 2022 – 2022 Western Mexico earthquake
- A magnitude 7.6 earthquake strikes Michoacán, Mexico, killing two people and wounding 12 others. (Reuters)
- 18 September 2022 – Mexican drug war
- Five gunmen storm a rehab center in the early morning in Cortazar, Guanajuato, Mexico, and open fire, killing three people and injuring two others. (MegaNoticias)
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The following are images from various Mexico-related articles on Wikipedia.
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.
T'ah 'ak' Cha'an. (from History of Mexico)
Panel 3 from Cancuen, Guatemala, representing king
La Constitución ha muerto). (from History of Mexico)
1903. Slogan on the protest banner reads: "The Constitution has died" (
History of Mexico)
Goddess, mural painting from the Tetitla apartment complex at Teotihuacan, Mexico, 650–750 CE. Pigments over clay and plaster. Elaborate mural paintings adorned Teotihuacan's elite residential compound. This example may depict the city's principal deity, a goddess wearing a jade mask and a large feathered headdress. (from
Olmec colossal are uncertain, but their individualized features and distinctive headgear, as well as later Maya practice, suggest that these heads portray rulers rather than deities. (from History of Mexico)
The identities of the
History of Mexico)
Rebel soldiers moving by rail during the Mexican Revolution. (from
Chacmool, Maya, from the Platform of the Eagles, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–90 CE. Stone, 4' 10.5" high. National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico city. Chacmools represent fallen warriors reclining on their backs with receptacles on their chests to receive sacrificial offerings. Excavators discovered one in the burial chamber inside the Castilloyo (from History of Mexico)
Tula portraying warriors armed with darts and spear-throwers reflect the military regime of the Toltecs, whose arrival in central Mexico coincided with the decline of the Maya. (from History of Mexico)
Colossal atlantids, pyramid B, Toltec, Tula, Mexico, ca. 900–1180 CE. Stone, each 16' high. The colossal statue-columns of
Ixmiquilpan occurred on September 25, 1866. between 350 soldiers of the Belgian Legion and Juarista forces, ending the battle with the victory of the latter. (from History of Mexico)
History of Mexico)
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Friar Miguel de Herrera (1700–1789) (from
Partido Nacional Revolucionario, with the colors of the Mexican flag (from History of Mexico)
Logo of the
Nacional Financiera (NAFIN), the state development bank. (from History of Mexico)
History of Mexico)
Comanchería, territory controlled by the Comaches, prior to 1850. (from
Teotihuacan view of the Avenue of the Dead and the Pyramid of the Sun, from the Pyramid of the Moon. At its peak around 600 CE, Teotihuacan was the sixth-largest city in the world. It featured a rational grid plan and a two-mile-long main avenue. Its monumental pyramids echo the shapes of surrounding mountains. (from History of Mexico)
Tabasco (from History of Mexico)
Battle of Centla, first time a horse was used in battle in a war in the Americas. Mural in the Palacio Municipal of Paraíso,
Lady Xoc, Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilan, Mexico, ca. 725 ce. Limestone, 3'7" × 2' 6.5". British Museum, London. The Maya built vast complexes of temples, palaces, and plazas and decorated many with painted reliefs. (from History of Mexico)
Shield Jaguar and
History of Mexico)
Flag and coat of arms of the Mexican Empire superimposed a map of its territorial limits. Note the crown on the eagle. (from
Kukulkan sits atop this pyramid with a total of 365 stairs on its four sides. At the spring and fall equinoxes, the sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase. (from History of Mexico)
The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800–900 CE. A temple to
Battle of Celaya (1915), earning him the nickname of Manco de Celaya ("the one-armed man of Celaya"). (from History of Mexico)
President Obregón. Note that he lost his right arm in the
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